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[圖紙尺寸] 【翻譯完畢】木工指南——木工膠水

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發表于 2010-10-23 23:47:37 | 只看該作者 |只看大圖 回帖獎勵 |倒序瀏覽 |閱讀模式
本帖最后由 bombcat 于 2010-10-24 14:24 編輯

WOODWORKING GUIDE: WOOD GLUE
木工指南:木工膠水

Understanding different types of glue.
了解不同種類的膠水

If there's one material, besides wood, that's central to furniture making, it's wood glue. Since ancient times, glue has been used to assemble furniture and it's not difficult to see glued pieces that are hundreds of years old. Just take a trip to an art museum and look at furniture from ancient Egypt or the European Renaissance. While the purpose of glue hasn't changed over the years, the technology certainly has. Now there are any number of specialty glues designed for all sorts of different applications. Fortunately, only a few play an important role in furniture making.
在家具制作領域除木材以外最重要的材料就是膠水了。從古時候開始,人們就開始用膠來組合家具,即便現在也不難見到有幾百年歷史的膠痕。可以去博物館看看那些從古埃及到歐洲文藝復興時期的家具。雖然這么多年來膠水的用途一直沒變,但膠水的技術卻在進步。現在有為各種用途設計的不同種類的膠水。幸運的是,在家具制作領域只有幾種膠水起到重要作用。

Hide Glue, Epoxies And Polyurethanes
皮膠、環氧樹脂膠和聚氨酯膠
The earliest glues were hide glues and these are still in use today. Hide glue is made from animal products and it's extremely useful for projects, like musical instruments, that often require disassembly to make repairs. Because heat and humidity cause hide glue to release its bond, it's a relatively simple matter to separate pieces without damaging them. Hide glue also cures slowly, so it can be a good option for difficult joints or constructions that take a long time to assemble. However, the goal of most furniture work is to create something that can withstand exposure to just these elements, heat and humidity. Fortunately, today's furniture maker has other options.
皮膠是最早發明的膠水,而且現在還在使用。皮膠是從動物身上提取出來的,它在制作那些需要經常拆解維修的東西(比如樂器)時很有用。因為高溫和高濕度都能使皮膠失效,所以用皮膠粘接的東西可以相對容易地拆開而不破壞物件本身。同時,皮膠干得比較慢,所以對組裝時間較長的復雜連接來說皮膠是個不錯的選擇。但是,大多數人還是希望家具能夠在溫度和濕度比較高的環境下依然耐久,幸運的是,現在家具制造者有更好的膠可選。

Two-part epoxies are probably the most durable of all adhesives. For situations where extreme water resistance is required, epoxy is the best choice. Unfortunately, it's pretty difficult and messy to use. And epoxies are quite toxic, so you need to don gloves and a respirator to protect yourself from chemical exposure. These inconveniences make epoxies a bad choice for everyday work.
雙組份環氧樹脂也許是最耐久的粘接劑了。在需要極端耐水的情況下,環氧樹脂是最好的選擇。不幸的是,這種膠使用起來很臟也很麻煩。同時,環氧樹脂還有很強的毒性,所以在操作是必須戴手套和防毒面具。這些不便使得環氧樹脂不能在日常使用中得以普及。

One of the latest adhesives to appear on the furniture making scene is polyurethane glue, which is supposed to be well-suited to just about any gluing job. This glue performs unlike any other. It actually cures by being exposed to moisture, so it's a good choice when moisture resistance is an issue. You even have to dampen wood surfaces before applying this glue. This product changes into a foamlike substance as it cures and in the process expands out of the joint. This can make sanding away the glue more difficult. Also, because it's so new, it can't claim the long-term successful track record that other glues enjoy.
在家具制作領域最新出現的一種膠是聚氨酯膠,這種膠被認為可以勝任所有用途。這種膠和其他膠水不同,它是靠接觸水分而固化的,所以在需要防水的情況下它是個不錯的選擇。你甚至需要在涂這種膠之前潤濕木頭表面。這種膠在固化過程中會變成一種泡沫狀的物質并從膠結點溢出,用砂紙清楚這些溢出的膠水會比較困難。此外,因為他是新產品,它并沒有其他膠水那樣的長效案例。

White Glues And Yellow Glues
白膠和黃膠
The most common furniture making glues are polyvinyl acetate adhesives, known casually as white and yellow glues. While white glue is a good general adhesive that can be used on most porous materials, yellow glue has been specifically formulated for interior woodworking applications. Yellow glue is usually referred to as aliphatic resin glue.
家具制作中最常用的是聚醋酸乙烯酯類膠粘劑,通常被叫做白膠和黃膠。對大多數多孔材質,白膠是一種很好的通用膠粘劑,而黃膠是為室內木作特殊配置的。黃膠通常被稱作脂肪樹脂膠。

Neither of these glues work well if a water-resistant bond is required. They are poor choices for building things like high-end exterior doors or outdoor furniture. For these purposes there are water-resistant formulations of yellow glue. These are technically known as cross-linking PVAs, and they cure through chemical reaction, instead of evaporation. For general woodworking use, this glue is interchangeable with normal yellow glue except that it can't be cleaned up with water after it cures.
但這這兩種膠水耐水性都不太好,在制作高端的室外門或者戶外家具的時候最好不要選用。有專門的耐水配方的黃膠可供選擇,也就是交聯PVA膠水,這種膠水是通過化學反應而不是靠脫水固化的。對大多數木作用途,這種膠水和普通的黃膠是可以替換使用的,唯一的不同就是這種膠水在固化后不能用水清除掉。

While each of these products has its place in the furniture maker's repertoire, aliphatic resin glue is the best choice for the beginner. It's easy to use, requires no mixing, is nontoxic and cleans up with water. It also sands cleanly, without overclogging the sandpaper, and leaves an invisible glue line if the joint is tight. Like all glues, however, it does have a finite shelf life. Once it's open, it's only good for about a year. If you notice that the glue starts to smell sour and becomes extremely thick or stringy, it's past its prime nd shouldn't be used.
雖然上述的各種膠水在家具制作領域都各有用武之地,但對于初學者來說脂肪樹脂膠(黃膠)是最好的選擇。黃膠易用、不需混合、無毒、可用水擦掉,并且容易拿砂紙打磨而不會過分填塞住砂紙,此外如果接口緊密的話,它只會留下一條透明的膠線。不過,和所有膠水一樣,黃膠也有保質期,一旦開封,它大約可以保質一年左右。如果你聞到膠水變酸并變得特別粘或纖維化嚴重,那么它肯定過期了,不能再用。

【翻譯完畢】木工指南——木工膠水
The basic furniture maker's glue assortment includes (from left) waterproof yellow glue, white glue, yellow glue, epoxy (in front), polyurethane glue and hide glue.
上圖是一些常用的家具制作膠水,左起依次是耐水黃膠、白膠、黃膠、環氧樹脂膠(前排)、聚氨酯膠和皮膠。

Gluing Techniques
涂膠技巧
In preparing a glue joint, it's important to keep a couple of ground rules in mind. First, while modern glues are amazingly strong, if joints do not fit properly or the glue is not allowed to cure correctly, the bond will almost surely fail. And second, less is more. A thin, even layer of glue will form a strong bond between two pieces of wood, but a thick cushion of glue does just the opposite. It weakens the joint. And, usually you won't know if this joint is weak until the piece is done and has been used for a while.
在準備給連接點涂膠時,有幾條注意事項要記住。第一,雖然現在膠水強度很高,但如果連接點對接不良或膠不能正確地固化,膠結幾乎肯定是要失敗的。第二,越少越好——薄薄的一層膠水就能在兩塊木頭間形成強大的粘結力,如果膠太厚會適得其反,它會使膠結力變弱。并且,在完成膠結并使用一段時間之后你才能發現這個節點的膠不牢固。

To achieve a successful edge joint, the long mating surfaces must be perfectly tight all along their length. You shouldn't rely on clamps to pull bowed boards together because this places too much stress on the joint and eventually it will fail.
對于長邊的粘接,要保證粘接效果必須讓整條長邊都緊密地吻合。不能靠鉗子讓板子較著勁地接合在一起,因為這樣膠結點會承受太大的應力,最終會開膠。

The fit of a mortise-and-tenon joint should also be precise, neither too tight nor too loose. If the parts must be forced together, there will be no room for the glue between the pieces and the joint will be starved. If, on the other hand, there is too much play in the joint, the glue layer will be too thick to perform properly when the piece is placed under stress. In a perfect joint, the glue layer is less than the thickness of a sheet of notebook paper.
方榫的榫卯之間也必須精確地接合,不能太緊或太松。如果太緊了,則沒有足夠的空間留給膠水。另一方面,如果榫卯太松,膠層就會很厚,在受力時容易脫開。最好的情況下,膠層的厚度應該比一張紙還薄些。

In order to guarantee that there is sufficient glue in a joint, spread a thin layer on both mating surfaces. In a mortise-and-tenon joint, this means coating both the mortise and tenon walls with glue. You can use a scrap stick, a small brush or a narrow roller to do this. Just make sure the coverage is complete and even.
為了保證膠結處有足夠的膠水,要在需粘接的兩邊材料上都薄薄地涂一層膠。在方榫結構中,這意味著在榫槽和榫頭上都要涂膠,你可以用小棒、小刷子或小滾子來涂膠,只要保證別漏涂和涂層均勻就行。

The mating surfaces must also be clean, dry and free of contamination before you spread the glue. Oil, waxes and some chemicals, like silicone, will resist the glue. And dust and water can cause the joint to fail by preventing good contact between wood surfaces, or diluting the strength of the glue.
涂膠前須保證膠結面清潔、干燥、無污染。油、蠟、一些化學物質(如硅膠)會阻擋膠水滲入木材。灰塵和水會影響膠結面的結合或者降低膠水的強度。

All glues have a recommended open time, which defines the amount of time you can safely leave the glue exposed to the air before assembling the joint. For most yellow glues, this is about 10 minutes. But the open time will vary with the temperature and humidity of your workroom. Hot, dry conditions will cause the glue to set quicker. In  complicated assemblies, where many joints must be prepared at once, it's important to factor the open time limit into the process. Sometimes, you'll have to assemble a project by making smaller subassemblies first. Also, keep in mind that yellow glue will not perform well in cold conditions. Most manufacturers recommend that both the room and the wood surfaces be at least 55 degrees F before applying glue.
所有的膠水都有一個建議的操作時間,也就是從涂膠開始到完成組合粘接這個過程中膠水可以暴露在空氣中的時間。對于大多數黃膠,操作時間大約是10分鐘。但是操作時間會隨環境溫度和濕度而變換。高溫、干燥的環境會使膠水干得更快。對于復雜構件的組合(很多膠結點需要同時組裝起來),必須考慮膠水的操作時間。有時候你必須將復雜構建分解成幾個部分分別組裝。還要注意,黃膠不能在寒冷的環境里使用。大多數制造商建議室溫和木材溫度都要在華氏55°(換算為攝氏13°左右)以上才能涂膠。

Once a joint is assembled, it must be clamped together. Clamps serve two purposes. They pull a joint together tightly and hold it in a fixed position while the glue sets. You should not apply tremendous force with your clamps because this will drive too much glue from the joint. Just firmly tighten them and set the assembly aside.
一旦膠結點組合完成,必須把它夾起來。夾鉗起到兩個作用,一是能緊緊地使結合面并在一起,二是在膠水固化過程中固定膠結面。不應該把夾鉗的力量調的太大,因為那樣會擠出過多的膠水。只需達到固定構件所需的力度就行。

If a proper amount of glue has been spread and a proper amount of force used to tighten the clamps, you should see small beads of glue squeezing out of both sides of the joint. To remove this squeeze-out, allow it to set for about 20 minutes, and then use an old chisel or putty knife to scrape off the excess.
如果圖較量和夾鉗的力度都合適,你能看到膠結點兩側都有擠出一點膠水。要去除這些余膠,需要等膠水固化20分鐘以后用鑿刀或油灰刀刮掉它們。

Some people recommend wiping the excess glue off with a damp rag. But this technique should be avoided because it can force glue into the surrounding wood pores–especially with open-grain woods. Unfortunately, this glue will not be apparent until you apply the finish, when it's too late to do anything easily to fix it. Finally, yellow glue should be allowed to set for at least an hour before you remove the clamps. And a full cure takes at least 24 hours, so don't isturb the assembly until this time has passed.
有些人建議用濕布擦掉余膠。但是這種做法不可取,因為這會造成余膠滲入周圍的木材毛孔中,尤其是開放木紋的木材。不幸的是,這些滲入的膠水在刷漆之前是很難顯現出來的,但等上了漆再來補救就很麻煩了。最后要說的是,在拆夾鉗之前,需要讓黃膠固化至少一個小時,而完全固化需要至少24小時,所以在這段時間里不要挪動粘接物。



評分

參與人數 5威望 +40 刨花 +145
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mickeyhot + 1 好貼,樓主大公無私!一定要加分了
一如不二 + 8 做的真不錯,學習了。
aiken_guan + 8 這個帖子不錯,加分表示一下。
liuli0000 + 8 這個帖子不錯,加分表示一下。
老李 + 40 + 120
收藏94 支持2 反對 收錄到花壇收錄到花壇
木沙發
發表于 2010-10-24 00:47:41 | 只看該作者
頂!謝謝了!
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木板凳
發表于 2010-10-24 01:11:03 | 只看該作者
最近常用到環氧樹脂膠
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木龍骨
發表于 2010-10-24 10:49:07 | 只看該作者
有用
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6
發表于 2010-10-24 12:34:05 | 只看該作者
l樓主英文不錯啊
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7
發表于 2010-10-24 13:14:26 | 只看該作者
樓主辛苦了
謝謝
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8
 樓主| 發表于 2010-10-24 14:25:44 | 只看該作者
最近常用到環氧樹脂膠
疊滘龍舟 發表于 2010-10-24 01:11



看來要注意勞動保護了
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9
發表于 2010-10-24 14:26:26 | 只看該作者
謝謝。
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10
發表于 2010-10-24 14:31:35 | 只看該作者
謝謝,樓主辛苦了。好心的人。
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11
發表于 2010-10-24 14:56:47 | 只看該作者
辛苦了!很有用的資料。
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12
發表于 2010-10-24 15:02:04 | 只看該作者
不錯,有用的資料
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13
發表于 2010-10-24 16:40:02 | 只看該作者
咨詢樓主:修補硬術茶臺裂縫用什么膠好呢?
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14
 樓主| 發表于 2010-10-24 16:47:41 | 只看該作者
咨詢樓主:修補硬術茶臺裂縫用什么膠好呢?
阿凡提 發表于 2010-10-24 16:40



這個我也沒經驗。。。
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15
發表于 2010-10-24 17:00:45 | 只看該作者
好像國內買不到黃膠吧,或者說名稱不同?
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